Document Detail


Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12778049     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Approximately 2.5% of adults in the United States and 4% of adults in Canada follow vegetarian diets. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat, fish, or fowl. Interest in vegetarianism appears to be increasing, with many restaurants and college foodservices offering vegetarian meals routinely. Substantial growth in sales of foods attractive to vegetarians has occurred, and these foods appear in many supermarkets. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to key nutrients for vegetarians, including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin A, n-3 fatty acids, and iodine. A vegetarian, including vegan, diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, use of fortified foods or supplements can be helpful in meeting recommendations for individual nutrients. Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals. Vegetarians have been reported to have lower body mass indices than nonvegetarians, as well as lower rates of death from ischemic heart disease; vegetarians also show lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer. Although a number of federally funded and institutional feeding programs can accommodate vegetarians, few have foods suitable for vegans at this time. Because of the variability of dietary practices among vegetarians, individual assessment of dietary intakes of vegetarians is required. Dietetics professionals have a responsibility to support and encourage those who express an interest in consuming a vegetarian diet. They can play key roles in educating vegetarian clients about food sources of specific nutrients, food purchase and preparation, and any dietary modifications that may be necessary to meet individual needs. Menu planning for vegetarians can be simplified by use of a food guide that specifies food groups and serving sizes.
Authors:
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the American Dietetic Association     Volume:  103     ISSN:  0002-8223     ISO Abbreviation:  J Am Diet Assoc     Publication Date:  2003 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-06-02     Completed Date:  2003-06-23     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7503061     Medline TA:  J Am Diet Assoc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  748-65     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease / therapy
Diet, Vegetarian*
Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
Dietetics*
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Minerals / administration & dosage
Nutrition Policy
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Nutritional Requirements
Pregnancy
Societies
United States
Vitamins / administration & dosage
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Proteins; 0/Minerals; 0/Vitamins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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