Document Detail


Poppy seed foods and opiate drug testing--where are we today?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19901868     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Seeds of the opium poppy plant are legally sold and widely consumed as food. Due to contamination during harvesting, the seeds can contain morphine and other opiate alkaloids. The objective of this study is to review the toxicology of poppy seed foods regarding influence on opiate drug tests. Computer-assisted literature review resulted in 95 identified references. Normal poppy seed consumption is generally regarded as safe. During food processing, the morphine content is considerably reduced (up to 90%). The possibility of false-positive opiate drug tests after poppy food ingestion exists. There are no unambiguous markers available to differentiate poppy food ingestion from heroin or pharmaceutical morphine use. This is also a problem in heroin-assisted maintenance programs. A basic requirement in such substitution programs is the patients' abstinence from any other drugs, including additional illicit heroin. Also a lack of forensic ingestion trials was detected that consider all factors influencing the morphine content in biologic matrices after consumption. Most studies did not control for the losses during food processing, so that the initial morphine dosage was overestimated. The large reduction of the morphine content during past years raises questions about the validity of the "poppy seed defence." However, a threshold of food use that would not lead to positive drug tests with certainty is currently unavailable. Research is needed to prove if the morphine contents in today's foods still pose the possibility of influencing drug tests. Future trials should consider processing-related morphine losses.
Authors:
Dirk W Lachenmeier; Constanze Sproll; Frank Musshoff
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Therapeutic drug monitoring     Volume:  32     ISSN:  1536-3694     ISO Abbreviation:  Ther Drug Monit     Publication Date:  2010 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-01-28     Completed Date:  2010-04-02     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7909660     Medline TA:  Ther Drug Monit     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  11-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Chemisches und Veterin?runtersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe, Germany. lachenmeier@web.de
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Alkaloids / analysis,  chemistry
False Positive Reactions
Food Contamination
Humans
Morphine / analysis,  chemistry
Opioid-Related Disorders / diagnosis*
Papaver / chemistry*
Seeds
Substance Abuse Detection / methods*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Alkaloids; 57-27-2/Morphine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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