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Plasma total bilirubin levels predict amputation events in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23322233     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bilirubin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Previous studies demonstrated that higher bilirubin levels were associated with reduced prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, the relationship between bilirubin and lower-limb amputation, a consequence of PAD, is currently unknown. We hypothesised that, in patients with type 2 diabetes, bilirubin concentrations may inversely associate with lower-limb amputation. METHODS: The relationship between baseline plasma total bilirubin levels and amputation events was analysed in 9,795 type 2 diabetic patients from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study. The analysis plan was pre-specified. Lower-limb amputation was adjudicated blinded to treatment allocation. Relevant clinical and biochemical data were available for analyses. Amputation was a pre-specified tertiary endpoint. RESULTS: Bilirubin concentrations were significantly inversely associated with lower-limb amputation, with a greater than threefold risk gradient across levels. Individuals with lower bilirubin concentrations had a higher risk for first amputation (HR 1.38 per 5 μmol/l decrease in bilirubin concentration, 95% CI 1.07, 1.79, p = 0.013). The same association persisted after adjustment for baseline variables, including age, height, smoking status, γ-glutamyltransferase level, HbA(1c), trial treatment allocation (placebo vs fenofibrate), as well as previous PAD, non-PAD cardiovascular disease, amputation or diabetic skin ulcer, neuropathy, nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy (HR 1.38 per 5 μmol/l decrease in bilirubin concentration, 95% CI 1.05, 1.81, p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results identify a significant inverse relationship between bilirubin levels and total lower-limb amputation, driven by major amputation. Our data raise the hypothesis that bilirubin may protect against amputation in type 2 diabetes.
Authors:
K H Chan; R L O'Connell; D R Sullivan; L S Hoffmann; K Rajamani; M Whiting; M W Donoghoe; M Vanhala; A Hamer; B Yu; R Stocker; M K C Ng; A C Keech;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-17
Journal Detail:
Title:  Diabetologia     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1432-0428     ISO Abbreviation:  Diabetologia     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-16     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0006777     Medline TA:  Diabetologia     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Cardiology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia, kimhoe_chan@yahoo.com.au.
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