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Plant-food and tool transfer among savanna chimpanzees at Fongoli, Senegal.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22101639     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Transferring food is considered a defining characteristic of humans, as such behavior is relatively uncommon in other animal species save for kin-based transfer. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are one exception, as they commonly transfer meat among nonrelatives but rarely transfer other resources. New observations at Fongoli, Senegal, show habitual transfer of wild-plant foods and other non-meat resources among community members beyond transfers from mother to offspring. We explore various explanations for these behaviors with a focus on age- and sex-class patterns in transfer events. In a total of 27 of 41 cases, male chimpanzees at Fongoli transferred wild-plant foods or tools to females. Most other cases involved transfer among males or males taking food from females. In light of male-female transfer patterns at Fongoli, we examine four hypotheses that have been applied to food transfer in apes: (1) testing for male-coercive tendency (van Noordwijk and van Schaik, Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:883-890, 2009), (2) costly signaling (Hockings et al. PLoS ONE 2:e886, 2007), (3) food-for-sex (Gomes and Boesch, PLoS ONE 4:5116, 2009), and (4) sharing-under-pressure (Gilby, Anim Behav 71:953-963, 2006). We also consider hypotheses posed to explain transfer among callitrichids, where such behavior is more common (Ruiz-Miranda et al. Am J Primatol 48:305-320, 1999). Finally, we examine variables such as patch and food size and food transport. We discuss our findings relative to general patterns of non-meat transfer in Pan and examine them in the context of chimpanzee sociality in particular. We then contrast chimpanzee species and subspecies in terms of non-meat food and tool transfer and address the possibility that a savanna environment contributes to the unusual pattern observed at Fongoli.
Jill D Pruetz; Stacy Lindshield
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-11-20
Journal Detail:
Title:  Primates; journal of primatology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1610-7365     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-11-21     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401152     Medline TA:  Primates     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Anthropology, Iowa State University, 324 Curtiss Hall, Ames, IA, 50011, USA,
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