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The Placenta as a Compensatory Iodine Storage Organ.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21417918     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Background: The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term. Methods: Samples (∼1 cm(3)) obtained from placental cotyledons (n = 19), thyroid (n = 4), and uterine myometrial (n = 4) tissue were incubated for 6 hours with (125)I in the presence and absence of potassium perchlorate. To account for variation in tissue composition, results were expressed in cpm (125)I/μg DNA. Results: Placental uptake of (125)I (375 cpm/μg DNA) was significantly higher than that of control myometrial tissue (226 cpm/μg DNA) (p < 0.05) and was ∼25% that of thyroid tissue (1702 cpm/μg DNA). Uptake of (125)I could be partially blocked in the thyroid and placenta, respectively, by potassium perchlorate (100 μM), which had no effect on uptake by myometrial tissue. Iodine content of tissue samples measured using an alkaline ashing technique with Sandell-Kolthoff colorimetry gave a mean value for total iodine of 30.4 ng/g placental tissue (range 21-50 ng/g), 1.74 ng/g myometrial tissue, and 1037 ng/g thyroid tissue. Conclusions: Placental iodine content was only ∼3% that of the thyroid, but on the basis that neonatal iodine stores are very low and highly sensitive to fluctuations in maternal iodine supply, we postulate that placental iodine bioavailability makes a significant contribution to protection against neonatal hypothyroidism. These findings suggest that the placenta has a role not only in uptake but also in storing iodine as a possible means of protecting the fetus from inadequacies in maternal dietary iodine intake.
Authors:
Robert Burns; Colm O'Herlihy; Peter P A Smyth
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-3-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1557-9077     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-3-22     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9104317     Medline TA:  Thyroid     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
1 UCD Health Sciences Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin , Dublin, Ireland .
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