Document Detail

Pituitary hyperplasia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11081195     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Comprehensive article summarizing more than 25 years of experience with pituitary hyperplasia in surgical material. Morphologic forms of hyperplasia--diffuse and nodular--are defined and, for comparison, the normal morphology, frequency and intraglandular distribution of cell types are briefly reviewed. All cell types can give rise to hyperplasia, although their frequency, extent and clinical importance widely vary. Somatotroph hyperplasia is rare; it is limited to cases of GHRH overproduction by extrapituitary endocrine neoplasms and sporadic examples of gigantism. Prolactin cells display the highest propensity for non-neoplastic proliferation. Physiologic hyperplasia occurs in pregnancy and lactation. Pathological hyperplasia is mostly secondary to other, neoplastic or non-neoplastic, space occupying processes. Idiopathic lactotroph hyperplasia is very rare. The much-disputed corticotroph hyperplasia is infrequent cause of pituitary dependent Cushing's disease. Despite difficulties of diagnosis in fragmented biopsies, several well-documented cases prove the existence of corticotroph hyperplasia which is nearly always nodular. Thyrotroph hyperplasia, secondary to hypothyroidism, a treatable condition, is not expected to occur in surgical material, yet several cases have been identified. Operated lesions are massive nodular leading to significant pituitary enlargement thereby mimicking TSH- or PRL-producing adenoma. Hyperprolactinemia is a frequent concomitant of severe thyrotroph hyperplasia. Gonadotroph hyperplasia and proliferation of pars intermedia derived POMC cells are not likely to occur in surgical material and have no clinical significance. Adenoma formation may rarely be associated with any type of pituitary hyperplasia.
E Horvath; K Kovacs; B W Scheithauer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pituitary     Volume:  1     ISSN:  1386-341X     ISO Abbreviation:  Pituitary     Publication Date:  1999 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-12-19     Completed Date:  2000-12-19     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9814578     Medline TA:  Pituitary     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  169-79     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Laboratory Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis
Follicle Stimulating Hormone / biosynthesis
Human Growth Hormone / biosynthesis
Luteinizing Hormone / biosynthesis
Pituitary Gland / metabolism*,  pathology*
Pituitary Hormones / biosynthesis*
Pro-Opiomelanocortin / biosynthesis
Prolactin / biosynthesis
Thyrotropin / biosynthesis
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Pituitary Hormones; 12629-01-5/Human Growth Hormone; 66796-54-1/Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2/Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4/Prolactin; 9002-67-9/Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0/Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5/Thyrotropin

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