Document Detail

Pilot study on lower nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products compared with medicinal nicotine.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18058349     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Smokeless tobacco (ST) products have the potential to be used as a harm reduction method for cigarette smokers. These products can deliver significantly less toxicants than cigarettes, although they are not toxicant free nor harmless. It is important to examine potential health risks and benefits of these products. These two small pilot studies examined the effects of two different ST products (Exalt and Ariva) compared with medicinal nicotine, another potential harm reduction product. Dependent, healthy adult cigarette smokers, who were motivated to quit smoking, underwent 1 week of baseline smoking measurement. They were then asked to quit smoking and were randomly assigned to use either an ST product or a medicinal nicotine lozenge (MNL, Commit) for 2 weeks, then crossed over to use the other product for 2 weeks. In the last week, following the sampling phase, subjects could choose the product they wished to use. Assessments were made repeatedly during baseline cigarette use and throughout the 5 weeks of treatment. Outcome measures included biomarkers for tobacco exposure and subjective, physiological, and behavioral responses. Tobacco-specific carcinogen uptake was greater from Exalt than from the MNL, and was comparable between the MNL and Ariva. Physiological effects and subjective effects on withdrawal and craving were comparable among Exalt, Ariva, and the MNL. Ariva was preferred over the MNL, which was preferred over Exalt. With the exception of medicinal nicotine products, low-nitrosamine ST products have the greatest potential to result in reduced toxicant exposure compared with other combustible reduced exposure products and have promise for reducing individual risk for disease. However, the population effect of marketing of such products as reduced exposure/reduced risk is unknown. The need for further research in this area and regulation of tobacco products is evident.
M Irene Mendoza-Baumgart; Ozlem E Tulunay; Stephen S Hecht; Yan Zhang; Sharon Murphy; Chap Le; Joni Jensen; Dorothy K Hatsukami
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco     Volume:  9     ISSN:  1462-2203     ISO Abbreviation:  Nicotine Tob. Res.     Publication Date:  2007 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-12-06     Completed Date:  2008-03-06     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9815751     Medline TA:  Nicotine Tob Res     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1309-23     Citation Subset:  IM    
Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center, Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers / urine
Carbon Monoxide / urine
Central Nervous System Stimulants / administration & dosage*
Cotinine / urine
Cross-Over Studies
Harm Reduction
Middle Aged
Nicotine / administration & dosage*,  adverse effects,  analogs & derivatives*,  pharmacokinetics
Nitrosamines / urine*
Pilot Projects
Polymethacrylic Acids / administration & dosage*,  adverse effects,  pharmacokinetics
Polyvinyls / administration & dosage*,  adverse effects,  pharmacokinetics
Research Design
Smoking Cessation / methods*
Tobacco, Smokeless* / pharmacokinetics
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 0/Central Nervous System Stimulants; 0/Nitrosamines; 0/Polymethacrylic Acids; 0/Polyvinyls; 486-56-6/Cotinine; 54-11-5/Nicotine; 630-08-0/Carbon Monoxide; 96055-45-7/nicotine polacrilex

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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