Document Detail

Physiological adaptation in early human pregnancy: adaptation to balance maternal-fetal demands.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16604136     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
After conception, the corpus luteum, placenta, and developing embryo release hormones, growth factors, and other substances into the maternal circulation. These substances trigger a cascade of events that transform the functioning of the maternal cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems, which in turn alter the physicochemical determinants of [H(+)]. Following implantation, maternal adaptations fulfill 4 important functions that support fetal growth. Increased availability of substrates and precursors for fetal-placental metabolism and hormone production is mediated by increases in dietary intake, as well as endocrine changes that increase the availability of glucose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Transport capacity is enhanced by increases in cardiac output, facilitating the transport of substrates and precursors to the placenta, and fetal waste products to maternal organs for disposal. Maternal-fetal exchange is regulated by the placenta after 10-12 weeks gestation, but it may occur through histiotrophic mechanisms before this time. Disposal of additional waste products (heat, carbon dioxide, and metabolic byproducts) occurs through peripheral vasodilation and increases in skin blood flow, ventilation, and renal filtration. The maternal physiological adaptations described above must meet the combined demands of maternal exercise and fetal growth. More research is needed to formulate evidence-based guidelines for healthy physical activity in early pregnancy.
Tracey L Weissgerber; Larry A Wolfe
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism = Physiologie appliquée, nutrition et métabolisme     Volume:  31     ISSN:  1715-5312     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2006 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-04-10     Completed Date:  2006-08-18     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101264333     Medline TA:  Appl Physiol Nutr Metab     Country:  Canada    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1-11     Citation Subset:  IM    
School of Physical and Health Education, Clinical Exercise Physiology Lab, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological / physiology*
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena
Fetus / physiology*
Pregnancy / physiology*
Pregnancy Trimester, First

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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