Document Detail


Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21878600     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
A rapidly growing literature strongly suggests that exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, may attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce dementia risk. We used PubMed (keywords exercise and cognition) and manuscript bibliographies to examine the published evidence of a cognitive neuroprotective effect of exercise. Meta-analyses of prospective studies documented a significantly reduced risk of dementia associated with midlife exercise; similarly, midlife exercise significantly reduced later risks of mild cognitive impairment in several studies. Among patients with dementia or mild cognitive impairment, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) documented better cognitive scores after 6 to 12 months of exercise compared with sedentary controls. Meta-analyses of RCTs of aerobic exercise in healthy adults were also associated with significantly improved cognitive scores. One year of aerobic exercise in a large RCT of seniors was associated with significantly larger hippocampal volumes and better spatial memory; other RCTs in seniors documented attenuation of age-related gray matter volume loss with aerobic exercise. Cross-sectional studies similarly reported significantly larger hippocampal or gray matter volumes among physically fit seniors compared with unfit seniors. Brain cognitive networks studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging display improved connectivity after 6 to 12 months of exercise. Animal studies indicate that exercise facilitates neuroplasticity via a variety of biomechanisms, with improved learning outcomes. Induction of brain neurotrophic factors by exercise has been confirmed in multiple animal studies, with indirect evidence for this process in humans. Besides a brain neuroprotective effect, physical exercise may also attenuate cognitive decline via mitigation of cerebrovascular risk, including the contribution of small vessel disease to dementia. Exercise should not be overlooked as an important therapeutic strategy.
Authors:
J Eric Ahlskog; Yonas E Geda; Neill R Graff-Radford; Ronald C Petersen
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Mayo Clinic proceedings     Volume:  86     ISSN:  1942-5546     ISO Abbreviation:  Mayo Clin. Proc.     Publication Date:  2011 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-08-31     Completed Date:  2011-10-24     Revised Date:  2013-12-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0405543     Medline TA:  Mayo Clin Proc     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  876-84     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Aged
Animals
Cognition / physiology*
Cognition Disorders / prevention & control*
Dementia / prevention & control*
Exercise / physiology*
Health Status
Humans
Memory / physiology*
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Physical Fitness / physiology*
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Comments/Corrections

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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