Document Detail

Phosphorus loadings associated with a park tourist attraction: limnological consequences of feeding the fish.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17265114     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The Linesville spillway of Pymatuning State Park is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Pennsylvania, USA, averaging more than 450,000 visitors . year(-1). Carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus) and waterfowl congregate at the spillway where they are fed bread and other foods by park visitors. We hypothesized that the "breadthrowers" constitute a significant nutrient vector to the upper portion of Pymatuning Reservoir. In the summer of 2002, we estimated phosphorus loadings attributable to breadthrowers, and compared these values to background loadings from Linesville Creek, a major tributary to the upper reservoir. Items fed to fish included bread, donuts, bagels, canned corn, popcorn, corn chips, hot dogs, birthday cakes, and dog food. Phosphorus loading associated with park visitors feeding fish was estimated to be 3233 g day(-1), and estimated P export from the Linesville Creek watershed was 2235 P loading attributable to breadthrowers exceeded that of the entire Linesville Creek watershed on 33 of the 35 days of study, with only a heavy rainfall event triggering watershed exports that exceeded spillway contributions. Averaged across 5 weeks, breadthrowers contributed 1.45-fold more P to Pymatuning Reservoir than the Linesville Creek watershed. If Linesville Creek P exports are extrapolated to the entire Sanctuary Lake watershed, spillway contributions of P added 48% to the non-point source watershed P entering the lake. Park visitors feeding fish at the Linesville Spillway are a significant source of nutrients entering Sanctuary Lake.
Andrew M Turner; Nathan Ruhl
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2007-01-29
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental management     Volume:  39     ISSN:  0364-152X     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ Manage     Publication Date:  2007 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-03-19     Completed Date:  2007-09-04     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7703893     Medline TA:  Environ Manage     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  526-33     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Biology, Clarion University, Clarion, Pennsylvania 16214, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Environmental Monitoring
Fresh Water / analysis
Phosphorus / analysis*
Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 7723-14-0/Phosphorus

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