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Phenyl-adenine, identified in an LSH4-assisted chemical screen, is a potent compound for shoot regeneration through the inhibition of CKX activity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23288884     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
In vitro shoot regeneration is implemented in basic plant research and commercial plant production, but for some plant species still difficult to achieve by means of the currently available cytokinins and auxins. To identify novel compounds that promote shoot regeneration, we screened a library of 10,000 small molecules. The bioassay consisted of a two-step regeneration protocol adjusted and optimized for high throughput manipulations of root explants of Arabidopsis thaliana carrying the shoot regeneration marker LIGHT-DEPENDENT SHORT HYPOCOTYLS4 (LSH4). The screen revealed a single compound, the cytokinin-like phenyl-adenine (Phe-Ade), as a potent inducer of adventitious shoots. Although Phe-Ade triggered diverse cytokinin-dependent phenotypical responses, it did not inhibit shoot growth and was not cytotoxic at high concentrations. Transcript profiling of cytokinin-related genes revealed that Phe-Ade treatment established a typical cytokinin response. Moreover, Phe-Ade activated the cytokinin receptors AHK3 and AHK4 in a bacterial receptor assay, albeit at relatively high concentrations, illustrating that it exerts genuine but weak cytokinin activity. In addition, we demonstrated that Phe-Ade is a strong competitive inhibitor of CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE (CKX) enzymes, leading to an accumulation of endogenous cytokinins. Collectively, Phe-Ade exhibits a dual mode of action which results in a strong shoot inducting activity.
Authors:
Hans Motte; Petr Galuszka; Lukás Spíchal; Petr Tarkowski; Ondrej Plíhal; Mária Smehilová; Pavel Jaworek; Danny Vereecke; Stefaan Werbrouck; Danny Geelen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-3
Journal Detail:
Title:  Plant physiology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1532-2548     ISO Abbreviation:  Plant Physiol.     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-4     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401224     Medline TA:  Plant Physiol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
1 University College Ghent;
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