Document Detail

Pharmacokinetics of diuretics and methylxanthines in the neonate.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  7398749     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The elimination of diuretics and methylxanthines is considerably slower in the neonate than in the adult. Dose guidelines, especially during long term maintenance, must be adjusted to account for this slower drug elimination. Pharmacokinetic studies and the requisite pharmacologic evaluation on diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide, spironolactone, ethacrynic acid and others should be done. Furosemide undergoes biotransformation in the newborn producing an acid metabolite and a glucuronide conjugate. Methylxanthines are effective in the treatment of neonatal apnea. Plasma elimination of theophylline is exceedingly slow, more so with caffeine. Decreased elimination is partly explained by decreased oxidative biotransformation. Caffeine is excreted in the urine of the newborn mainly unchanged (85%) in contrast to the adult where caffeine is a minor portion of urinary excretion (2%). Theophylline is methylated to caffeine and may possibly exert additive pharmacologic effects.
J V Aranda; T Turmen; B I Sasyniuk
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of clinical pharmacology     Volume:  18     ISSN:  0031-6970     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.     Publication Date:  1980 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1980-10-27     Completed Date:  1980-10-27     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1256165     Medline TA:  Eur J Clin Pharmacol     Country:  GERMANY, WEST    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  55-63     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Bilirubin / metabolism
Binding, Competitive
Bumetanide / metabolism
Diuretics / blood,  metabolism*
Furosemide / metabolism
Infant, Newborn*
Infant, Premature
Protein Binding
Xanthines / metabolism*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Diuretics; 0/Xanthines; 28395-03-1/Bumetanide; 54-31-9/Furosemide; 635-65-4/Bilirubin

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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