Document Detail


Pharmacokinetics of Aminoglycosides in the Newborn.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22385059     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Aminoglycosides have played a major role in antimicrobial therapy since their discovery in the 1940s. Their bactericidal efficacy in gram-negative infections, synergism with beta-lactam antibiotics, limited bacterial resistance, and low cost have given these agents a firm place in antimicrobial treatment. After penicillins, aminoglycosides are the most commonly used drugs in the neonatal intensive care unit. While the pharmacodynamic action on the bacterial target is obviously the same in neonates as compared to children and adults, dramatic differences exist in terms of pharmacokinetics. Renal function is the most important determinant in respect to the elimination of aminoglycosides and, depending on the age and development of the newborn infant, dramatic changes in renal clearing capacity have been documented. The incorporation of this knowledge about the developing kidney has, very recently, resulted in a revised aminoglycoside dosing guideline for use in newborn infants. This article will therefore address the rationale behind this new dosing regimen and also explain why this has resulted in clinically important changes in how to perform therapeutic drug monitoring of aminoglycosides in neonates to ensure safe and effective use of these frequently used medicines in this vulnerable population.
Authors:
Johannes N van den Anker; Karel Allegaert
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-2-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current pharmaceutical design     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1873-4286     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-3-5     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9602487     Medline TA:  Curr Pharm Des     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Vice Chair of Pediatrics for Experimental Therapeutics, Evan and Cindy Jones Professor of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology, Chief, Division of Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology, Children's National Medical Center, Professor of Pediatrics, Pharmacology & Physiology, GWU School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 111 Michigan Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20010. jvandena@cnmc.org.
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