Document Detail

Pharmacist intervention in activated protein C therapy for severe sepsis: influence on health and economic outcomes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19356388     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To assess the health and cost outcomes of pharmacist intervention versus non-intervention in activated protein C (drotrecogin alpha) therapy for patients with severe sepsis. METHOD: This is a retrospective study. We reviewed the medical records of patients aged 18 years and older who were admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007. Only patients who are prescribed activated protein C for the treatment of severe sepsis according to the reimbursement criteria can be reimbursed by the Taiwan Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI). Our hospital stipulated that the criteria check list must be evaluated by a clinical pharmacist and the prescribing physician as to whether the patient is eligible to receive activated protein C. To assess the influence of pharmacist intervention on outcomes, we divided eligible patients into two groups, pharmacist-intervention group (Group A; n = 19) and non-pharmacist intervention group (Group B; n = 19). Both groups received a 96-h intravenous infusion of activated protein C at 24 microg/kg/h. We defined evident severe sepsis as concurrent antibiotic plus ventilator and/or vasopressor use. We compared group characteristics, 28-day in-hospital mortality, length of stay and direct medical costs between the two groups. One-way ANOVA was used for analysis. RESULTS: 50% of patients in each group met the reimbursement criteria of the BNHI. Activated protein C therapy was initiated within 1.37 +/- 0.4 days and 7.21 +/- 7.8 days of admission to the ICU in Group A and Group B, respectively (p < 0.01). All of the patients in Group A (19/19) and 42.1% of the patients in Group B (8/19) received activated protein C within 12 - 48 h of admission to the Intensive care unit (ICU) (p < 0.01). 28-day mortality was lower for Group A than for Group B (26.7% and 43.8%, respectively). The length of stay in the ICU for patients in Group A was shorter than that in Group B (14.1 +/- 7.7 vs. 19.7 +/- 11.1, respectively; p < 0.079). Total direct medical costs for survivors in Group A were less than those in Group B (US$ 20,632.3 vs. US$ 24,785.8, respectively; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist intervention in prescribing activated protein C for patients with severe sepsis might reduce direct medical costs and promote earlier initiation of therapy. The potential impact of pharmacist intervention on the timing of activated protein C therapy and the direct medical costs of treatment warrant further study.
A L Chan; H-J Hsieh; S-J Lin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics     Volume:  47     ISSN:  0946-1965     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther     Publication Date:  2009 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-04-09     Completed Date:  2009-06-02     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9423309     Medline TA:  Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  229-35     Citation Subset:  IM    
School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
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MeSH Terms
Analysis of Variance
Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage,  therapeutic use*
Hospital Costs / statistics & numerical data
Hospital Mortality
Infusions, Intravenous
Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Pharmacists* / economics
Professional Role
Protein C / administration & dosage,  economics,  therapeutic use*
Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage,  economics,  therapeutic use
Reimbursement Mechanisms
Retrospective Studies
Sepsis / drug therapy*,  economics,  mortality
Severity of Illness Index
Taiwan / epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anti-Infective Agents; 0/Protein C; 0/Recombinant Proteins; 0/drotrecogin alfa activated

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