Document Detail


Personal exposures to volatile organic compounds among outdoor and indoor workers in two Mexican cities.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17306862     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
There are limited data on exposures to ambient air toxics experienced by inhabitants of urban areas in developing countries that have high levels of outdoor air pollution. In particular, little is known about exposures experienced by individuals working outdoors - typically as part of the informal sector of the economy - as compared to workers in office-type environments that approach the indoor air quality conditions of the more developed countries. The objective of this study is to explore these differences in personal exposures using a convenience sample of 68 outdoor and indoor workers living in Mexico City (higher outdoor air pollution) and Puebla (lower outdoor air pollution), Mexico. Occupational and non-occupational exposures to airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored during a 2 day period, monitoring 2 consecutives occupational and non-occupational periods, using organic vapor monitors (OVMs). Socio-demographic and personal time-location-activity information were collected by means of questionnaires and activity logs. Outdoor workers experienced significantly higher exposures to most VOCs compared to indoor workers in each of these cities. The outdoor workers in Mexico City had the highest exposures both during- and off-work, with maximum occupational exposures for toluene, MTBE, n-pentane, and d-limonene exceeding 1 mg/m(3). The inter-city pattern of exposures between the outdoor workers is consistent with the higher outdoor air pollution levels in Mexico City, and is above exposures reported for urban areas of the more developed countries. Results from this study suggest that elevated outdoor air pollution concentrations have a larger impact on outdoor workers' personal exposures compared to the contribution from indoor pollution sources. This contrasts with the more dominant role of indoor air VOC contributions to personal exposures typically reported for urban populations of the more developed countries.
Authors:
Horacio Tovalin-Ahumada; Lawrence Whitehead
Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.     Date:  2007-02-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Science of the total environment     Volume:  376     ISSN:  0048-9697     ISO Abbreviation:  Sci. Total Environ.     Publication Date:  2007 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-03-19     Completed Date:  2007-05-24     Revised Date:  2007-12-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330500     Medline TA:  Sci Total Environ     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  60-71     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, FES-Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México D.F., Mexico. horaciotovalin@yahoo.es
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Air Pollutants / analysis*
Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis*
Cities
Environmental Monitoring
Humans
Male
Mexico
Occupational Exposure / analysis*
Organic Chemicals / analysis
Transportation
Volatilization
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
5 D43TW00644/TW/FIC NIH HHS; T42/CCT610417//PHS HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants; 0/Organic Chemicals

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