Document Detail

Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16898456     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields (> or = 10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10(-10) scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/conventional ranged from 0.47-0.94) doses approximately [0.4-1.8 cGy]/[0.9-2.9 cGy]/fraction, respectively. Prior phantom reports are for fields 10 cm or greater, while pediatric central nervous system fields range from 4 to 7 cm, and effectively much smaller for IMRT (2-6 cm). Peripheral dose in close proximity (< 10 cm from the field edge) is dominated by internal scatter; therefore, field-size differences overwhelm phantom size affects and increased MU. Distant peripheral dose, dominated by head leakage, was higher than predicted, even when accounting for MUs (approximtely factor of 3) likely due to the pediatric phantom size. The ratio of the testes dose ranged from 3.3-5.3 for IMRT/conventional. PD to OAR for pediatric IMRT cannot be predicted from large-field full phantom studies. For regional OAR, doses are likely lower than predicted by existing "large field" data, while the distant PD is higher.
Eric E Klein; Beth Maserang; Roy Wood; David Mansur
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medical physics     Volume:  33     ISSN:  0094-2405     ISO Abbreviation:  Med Phys     Publication Date:  2006 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-08-10     Completed Date:  2006-12-07     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0425746     Medline TA:  Med Phys     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  2525-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy*
Child, Preschool
Particle Accelerators
Phantoms, Imaging
Radiation Protection
Radiometry / methods*
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods*
Skull Neoplasms / radiotherapy*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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