Document Detail

Performance of a modified HIV-1 p24 antigen assay for early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants and prediction of mother-to-infant transmission of HIV-1 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  8673553     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The aim of this study was to determine the utility of an amplified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen (ag) assay using heated plasma or serum samples for the early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants and for the prediction of the risk of mother-to-infant (MTI) transmission of HIV-1 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study included 125 samples from 76 infants positive for HIV-1 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 106 samples from 101 PCR-negative infants and 116 and 160 samples from seropositive and seronegative mothers, respectively. Samples were boiled to dissociate immune complexes and tested for HIV-1 p24 ag using a p24 ag amplification assay. Reactive samples were confirmed by a neutralization assay. Altogether, 123 of 125 samples from 76 PCR-positive infants were positive for p24 ag (sensitivity = 98.7%). HIV-1 p24 ag was found in all 18 samples collected at 1-8 weeks, in 35 of 36 samples collected at 9-26 weeks, in all 40 samples collected at 27-52 weeks, and in 30 of 31 samples collected > 52 weeks after birth. Detection of HIV-1 p24 ag was significantly more common in transmitting mothers (12 of 29, 41.4%) than in nontransmitting mothers (nine of 87, 10.3%) (p < 0.001). Among mothers with p24 antigenemia, the vertical transmission rate was significantly higher (12 of 21, 57%) than in mothers without p24 antigenemia (17 of 95, 18%) (p < 0.001). All samples from 101 PCR-negative children and 160 seronegative mothers were negative for p24 ag (specificity = 100%). We conclude that using heated plasma or serum increases the sensitivity of the p24 ag assay significantly. This modified simple test may be sufficient for the early diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants in settings with limited laboratory facilities. It is also useful for prediction of the risk of MTI transmission of HIV-1.
E Lyamuya; U Bredberg-Rådén; A Massawe; E Urassa; G Kawo; G Msemo; T Kazimoto; A Ostborn; K Karlsson; F Mhalu; G Biberfeld
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association     Volume:  12     ISSN:  1077-9450     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol.     Publication Date:  1996 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1996-08-15     Completed Date:  1996-08-15     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9501482     Medline TA:  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  421-6     Citation Subset:  IM; X    
Department of Microbiology/Immunology, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers / blood
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Follow-Up Studies
HIV Antibodies / blood
HIV Core Protein p24 / blood*
HIV Infections / blood,  diagnosis*,  transmission
HIV-1 / immunology*
Hot Temperature
Infant, Newborn
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
Sensitivity and Specificity
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; 0/HIV Antibodies; 0/HIV Core Protein p24

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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