Document Detail


Perchlorate exposure and dose estimates in infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21449579     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used as a component of solid rocket fuel, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Sufficiently high perchlorate intakes can modify thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake in adults; however, little is known about perchlorate exposure and health effects in infants. Food intake models predict that infants have higher perchlorate exposure doses than adults. For this reason, we measured perchlorate and related anions (nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide) in 206 urine samples from 92 infants ages 1-377 days and calculated perchlorate intake dose for this sample of infants. The median estimated exposure dose for this sample of infants was 0.160 μg/kg/day. Of the 205 individual dose estimates, 9% exceeded the reference dose of 0.7 μg/kg/day; 6% of infants providing multiple samples had multiple perchlorate dose estimates above the reference dose. Estimated exposure dose differed by feeding method: breast-fed infants had a higher perchlorate exposure dose (geometric mean 0.220 μg/kg/day) than infants consuming cow milk-based formula (geometric mean 0.103 μg/kg/day, p < 0.0001) or soy-based formula (geometric mean 0.027 μg/kg/day, p < 0.0001), consistent with dose estimates based on dietary intake data. The ability of perchlorate to block adequate iodide uptake by the thyroid may have been reduced by the iodine-sufficient status of the infants studied (median urinary iodide 125 μg/L). Further research is needed to see whether these perchlorate intake doses lead to any health effects.
Authors:
Liza Valentín-Blasini; Benjamin C Blount; Samaret Otero-Santos; Yang Cao; Judy C Bernbaum; Walter J Rogan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural     Date:  2011-03-30
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  45     ISSN:  1520-5851     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2011 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-04-28     Completed Date:  2011-08-23     Revised Date:  2013-06-30    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  4127-32     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Breast Feeding
Cattle
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure / analysis*
Environmental Pollutants / urine*
Humans
Infant
Infant Formula / metabolism
Infant, Newborn
Milk / metabolism
Perchloric Acid / urine*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
ZIA ES044006-10/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Environmental Pollutants; 7601-90-3/Perchloric Acid; VLA4NZX2P4/perchlorate
Comments/Corrections

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