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Penetration of topical diclofenac sodium 4 % spray gel into the synovial tissue and synovial fluid of the knee: a randomised clinical trial.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23338668     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to evaluate the penetration of diclofenac sodium 4 % spray gel in synovial tissue, synovial fluid and blood plasma after topical application in subjects with joint effusions and planned total knee arthroplasty (TKA) due to osteoarthritis. METHODS: A total of 39 patients were randomised to two- or three-times daily application of diclofenac sodium 4 % spray gel to knees requiring surgery over a treatment period of 3 days. Within 8 h after the last application, TKA was conducted, and the diclofenac concentrations in synovial tissue, synovial fluid and blood plasma were measured by liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The median diclofenac concentration was approximately 10-20-fold higher in synovial tissue (36.2 and 42.8 ng/g) than in synovial fluid (2.6 and 2.8 ng/mL) or plasma (3.9 and 4.1 ng/mL) in both treatment groups. Dose proportionality for any compartment or treatment groups could not be detected. Treatment-related adverse events were noted in two cases and limited to skin reactions. CONCLUSION: Diclofenac sodium 4 % spray gel was found to penetrate the skin locally in substantial amounts and thus reach the desired target tissue. Concentrations were not dose-dependent, and application was well tolerated by 97.4 % of patients. Topical application of diclofenac should be considered a valuable alternative to systemic NSAID therapy in the initial treatment of osteoarthritis.
Turgay Efe; Ercan Sagnak; Philip P Roessler; Alan Getgood; Thilo Patzer; Susanne Fuchs-Winkelmann; Christian D Peterlein; Markus D Schofer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2013-1-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1433-7347     ISO Abbreviation:  Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc     Publication Date:  2013 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-1-22     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9314730     Medline TA:  Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Orthopaedics and Rheumatology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043, Marburg, Germany,
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