Document Detail

Pediatric Humeral Osteomyelitis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25379820     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND:: Osteomyelitis is a common problem among the pediatric population. The humerus is the most commonly affected bone in the upper limb; however, there are relatively few series in the literature. This article retrospectively reviews a large number of cases of pediatric humeral osteomyelitis. We aim to further define the disease and its clinical course to aid in improved treatment.
METHODS:: A 10-year retrospective review was performed of clinical records of pediatric humeral osteomyelitis at the 2 children's orthopaedic departments in the Auckland region. The Osteomyelitis Database was used to identify all cases between 1997 and 2007 at Starship Children's Hospital, and 1998 and 2008 at Middlemore's Kidz First Hospital.
RESULTS:: Forty-nine patients were identified. Sixty-one percent were male with an average age of 4.2 years. Maori and Pacific Islanders were overrepresented. Seventy-eight percent were not using the limb, 70% complained of pain. Only 55% were febrile. White cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein raised in 73%, 74%, and 79% of cases, respectively. X-ray, bone scintigraphy, and particularly magnetic resonance imaging were useful in radiologic diagnosis. Blood and tissue cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus as the most common organism; there were 2 cases of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The distal humerus was more commonly affected. Fifty-three percent required surgery. Antibiotic therapy averaged 2.7 weeks intravenous and 2.6 weeks of oral therapy. There were 7 cases with adjacent septic arthritis, which had higher inflammatory markers. Major complications included 2 multiorgan failure and 1 growth disturbance.
CONCLUSIONS:: Humeral osteomyelitis can be diagnosed with an appropriate history, clinical examination, and investigations. One should be aware of concurrent septic arthritis and be prepared to treat this urgently. Those children with septic arthritis were not using the limb and had higher inflammatory markers. Treatment with intravenous and oral antibiotics and surgical debridement/washout if indicated can lead to good clinical outcomes with minimal complications.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Level IV-retrospective case series.
Matthew Street; Haemish Crawford
Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-11-6
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of pediatric orthopedics     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1539-2570     ISO Abbreviation:  J Pediatr Orthop     Publication Date:  2014 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-11-7     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  2014-11-8    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8109053     Medline TA:  J Pediatr Orthop     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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