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Patterns of iodine intake and urinary iodine concentrations during pregnancy and blood thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in the newborn progeny.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20950254     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Process    
BACKGROUND: Appropriate maternal intake of iodine during pregnancy is essential for maternal thyroxine production and thyroid status of the fetus. It should be possible to enhance iodine intake during pregnancy by using iodine fortified salt or taking iodine supplements. In the present report we determined the status of iodine nutrition in pregnant women who were stratified on the basis of their history of taking or not taking iodized salt or iodine supplements. The study was performed in Toledo (Spain), a region in which prior studies have noted borderline iodine sufficiency. Iodine nutrition was assessed by measuring urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and neonatal thyrotropin (TSH).
METHODS: UIC was measured in 525 pregnant women. They were grouped according to their history of iodine intake. Diet Group 1 patients (n = 69) did not take iodized salt or iodine supplements during pregnancy. Diet Group 2 patients (n = 75) took iodized salt but not iodine supplements during pregnancy. Diet Group 3 patients (n = 381) took iodine supplements during pregnancy. Plasma determinations included TSH, free thyroxine, thyroid peroxidase antibody, and thyroglobulin antibody. UIC was measured in a single urine sample from all the pregnant women. Neonatal TSH was measured in capillary spot blood from all the neonates as part of a screening for congenital metabolic abnormalities.
RESULTS: The median UIC in all subjects was 164 μg/L (interquartile range [IR]: 116-245). The median UICs in Diet Groups 1, 2, and 3 were 134.5 (IR: 90-196), 146 (IR: 103-205), and 183 (IR: 124-261) μg/L, respectively (p = not significant [NS] for Diet Group 1 vs. 2; p < 0.01 for Diet Group 2 vs. 3; all other comparisons NS). The median (IR) TSH of the neonates in all Diet Groups was 1.0 (IR: 0.7-1.6) μU/mL. Only 2 neonates had blood TSH concentrations >5 mU/L. Neonatal blood TSH concentrations were similar in all Diet Groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In a region with a history of borderline iodine deficiency the UICs were below 150 μg/L in a substantial percentage of pregnant women who did not take iodine supplements, regardless of whether or not they took iodized salt. Our results support the use of iodine supplements from the start of the pregnancy, or even before pregnancy in women who live in regions with a history of even small degrees of iodine deficiency. In addition, neonate TSH screening is not the best tool to assess whether the iodine status in populations is ideal.
Amparo Marco; Almudena Vicente; Enrique Castro; Carmen Eva Perez; Olga Rodríguez; Maria Angeles Merchan; Julia Sastre; Bárbara Cánovas; Esther Maqueda; Virginia Peña; José López
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-10-18
Journal Detail:
Title:  Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association     Volume:  20     ISSN:  1557-9077     ISO Abbreviation:  Thyroid     Publication Date:  2010 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9104317     Medline TA:  Thyroid     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1295-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, Complejo Hospitalario de Toledo, Toledo, Spain.
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