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Patient-Derived Olfactory Stem Cells: New Models for Brain Diseases.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22961669     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Traditional models of brain diseases have had limited success in driving candidate drugs into successful clinical translation. This has resulted in large international pharmaceutical companies moving out of neuroscience research. Cells are not brains, obviously, but new patient-derived stem models have the potential to elucidate cell biological aspects of brain diseases that are not present in worm, fly or rodent models, the work horses of disease investigations and drug discovery. Neural stem cells are present in the olfactory mucosa, the organ of smell in the nose. Patient-derived olfactory mucosa has demonstrated disease-associated differences in a variety of brain diseases and recently olfactory mucosa stem cells have been generated from patients with schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and familial dysautonomia. By comparison with cells from healthy controls, patient-derived olfactory mucosa stem cells show disease-specific alterations in gene expression and cell functions including: a shorter cell cycle and faster proliferation in schizophrenia, oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease and altered cell migration in familial dysautonomia. Olfactory stem cell cultures thus reveal patient-control differences, even in complex genetic diseases such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, indicating that multiple genes of small effect can converge on shared cell signalling pathways to present as a disease-specific cellular phenotype. Olfactory mucosa stem cells can be maintained in homogeneous cultures that allow robust and repeatable multi-well assays suitable for screening libraries of drug candidate molecules.
Authors:
Alan Mackay-Sim
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-9-7
Journal Detail:
Title:  Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1549-4918     ISO Abbreviation:  Stem Cells     Publication Date:  2012 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-9-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9304532     Medline TA:  Stem Cells     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.
Affiliation:
National Centre for Adult Stem Cell Research, Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia. a.mackay-sim@griffith.edu.au.
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