Document Detail

Pathophysiologic targets in the early phase of acute heart failure syndromes.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16196154     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
An episode of acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) can be defined as a rapid or gradual onset of signs and symptoms of heart failure (HF) in hospital admission and can arise from a variety of pathophysiologic mechanisms. This article reviews our current understanding of the pathophysiology of AHFS in order to identify potential therapeutic targets. Most patients with AHFS present with either normal systolic blood pressure or elevated blood pressure. Patients who present with elevated systolic blood pressure usually have pulmonary congestion and a relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and have symptoms that typically develop abruptly, these patients often are elderly women. Patients with normal systolic blood pressure presenting with systemic congestion and reduced LVEF are usually younger, with a history of chronic HF, and have symptoms that develop gradually over days or weeks. Accordingly, most episodes of AHFS can be classified as either "vascular" failure or "cardiac" failure. In addition to the abnormal hemodynamics (increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and/or decrease in cardiac output) that characterize patients with AHFS, myocardial injury--which may be related to a decrease in coronary perfusion and/or further activation of neurohormones and renal dysfunction (ie, the cardiorenal syndrome)--probably contributes to short-term and post-discharge cardiac events. Patients with AHFS also have significant cardiac and non-cardiac underlying conditions that contribute to the pathogenesis of AHFS, including coronary artery disease (ischemia, hibernating myocardium, and endothelial dysfunction), hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The goals of therapy for AHFS should be not only to improve symptoms and hemodynamics, but also to preserve or improve renal function and prevent myocardial damage.
Mihai Gheorghiade; Leonardo De Luca; Gregg C Fonarow; Gerasimos Filippatos; Marco Metra; Gary S Francis
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of cardiology     Volume:  96     ISSN:  0002-9149     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Cardiol.     Publication Date:  2005 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-09-29     Completed Date:  2005-10-17     Revised Date:  2007-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0207277     Medline TA:  Am J Cardiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  11G-17G     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Division of Cardiology, Northwester University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Acute Disease
Heart Failure / physiopathology*

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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