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The Pathogenic White-Rot Fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Responds to Spruce Xylem Defense by Enhanced Production of Oxalic Acid.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23035954     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Pathogen challenge of tree sapwood induces the formation of reaction zones with antimicrobial properties such as elevated pH and cation content. Many fungi lower substrate pH by secreting oxalic acid, its conjugate base oxalate being a reductant as well as a chelating agent for cations. To examine the role of oxalic acid in pathogenicity of white-rot fungi, we conducted spatial quantification of oxalate, transcript levels of related fungal genes, and element concentrations in heartwood of Norway spruce challenged naturally by Heterobasidion parviporum. In the pathogen-compromised reaction zone, upregulation of an oxaloacetase gene generating oxalic acid coincided with oxalate and cation accumulation and presence of calcium oxalate crystals. The colonized inner heartwood showed trace amounts of oxalate. Moreover, fungal exposure to the reaction zone under laboratory conditions induced oxaloacetase and oxalate accumulation, whereas heartwood induced a decarboxylase gene involved in degradation of oxalate. The excess level of cations in defense xylem inactivates pathogen-secreted oxalate through precipitation and, presumably, only after cation neutralization can oxalic acid participate in lignocellulose degradation. This necessitates enhanced production of oxalic acid by H. parviporum. This study is the first to determine the true influence of white-rot fungi on oxalate crystal formation in tree xylem.
Authors:
Nina Elisabeth Nagy; Harald Kvaalen; Monica Fongen; Carl Gunnar Fossdal; Nicholas Clarke; Halvor Solheim; Ari M Hietala
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI     Volume:  25     ISSN:  0894-0282     ISO Abbreviation:  Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-05     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9107902     Medline TA:  Mol Plant Microbe Interact     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1450-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
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