Document Detail


Parental imprinting regulates insulin-like growth factor signaling: a Rosetta Stone for understanding the biology of pluripotent stem cells, aging and cancerogenesis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23135355     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
In recent years, solid evidence has accumulated that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2) regulate many biological processes in normal and malignant cells. Recently, more light has been shed on the epigenetic mechanisms regulating expression of genes involved in IGF signaling (IFS) and it has become evident that these mechanisms are crucial for initiation of embryogenesis, maintaining the quiescence of pluripotent stem cells deposited in adult tissues (for example, very-small embryonic-like stem cells), the aging process, and the malignant transformation of cells. The expression of several genes involved in IFS is regulated at the epigenetic level by imprinting/methylation within differentially methylated regions (DMRs), which regulate their expression from paternal or maternal chromosomes. The most important role in the regulation of IFS gene expression is played by the Igf-2-H19 locus, which encodes the autocrine/paracrine mitogen IGF-2 and the H19 gene, which gives rise to a non-coding RNA precursor of several microRNAs that negatively affect cell proliferation. Among these, miR-675 has recently been demonstrated to downregulate expression of the IGF-1 receptor. The proper imprinting of DMRs at the Igf-2-H19 locus, with methylation of the paternal chromosome and a lack of methylation on the maternal chromosome, regulates expression of these genes so that Igf-2 is transcribed only from the paternal chromosome and H19 (including miR-675) only from the maternal chromosome. In this review, we will discuss the relevance of (i) proper somatic imprinting, (ii) erasure of imprinting and (iii) loss of imprinting within the DMRs at the Igf-2-H19 locus to the expression of genes involved in IFS, and the consequences of these alternative patterns of imprinting for stem cell biology.
Authors:
M Z Ratajczak; D-M Shin; G Schneider; J Ratajczak; M Kucia
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2012-11-08
Journal Detail:
Title:  Leukemia     Volume:  27     ISSN:  1476-5551     ISO Abbreviation:  Leukemia     Publication Date:  2013 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-04-11     Completed Date:  2013-06-04     Revised Date:  2014-04-08    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8704895     Medline TA:  Leukemia     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  773-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Aging / physiology*
Cell Transformation, Neoplastic*
DNA Methylation
Epigenesis, Genetic
Female
Genomic Imprinting*
Humans
Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / genetics,  metabolism*
Male
Pluripotent Stem Cells / metabolism*
RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics
Signal Transduction*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
2R01 DK074720/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/H19 long non-coding RNA; 0/RNA, Long Noncoding; 67763-97-7/Insulin-Like Growth Factor II

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