Document Detail

Paradoxical roles for lysyl oxidases in cancer--a prospect.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17471532     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) enzyme that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagens or elastin in the extracellular compartment, thereby regulating the tensile strength of tissues. However, recent reports have demonstrated novel roles for LOX, including the ability to regulate gene transcription, motility/migration, and cell adhesion. These diverse functions have led researchers to hypothesize that LOX may have multiple roles affecting both extra- and intracellular cell function(s). Particularly noteworthy is aberrant LOX expression and activity that have been observed in various cancerous tissues and neoplastic cell lines. Both down and upregulation of LOX in tumor tissues and cancer cell lines have been described, suggesting a dual role for LOX as a tumor suppressor, as well as a metastasis promoter gene--creating a conundrum within the LOX research field. Here, we review the body of evidence on LOX gene expression, regulation, and function(s) in various cancer cell types and tissues, as well as stromal-tumor cell interactions. Lastly, we will examine putative mechanisms in which LOX facilitates breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Taken together, the literature demonstrates the increasingly important role(s) that LOX may play in regulating tumor progression and the necessity to elucidate its myriad mechanisms of action in order to identify potentially novel therapeutics.
Stacey L Payne; Mary J C Hendrix; Dawn A Kirschmann
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of cellular biochemistry     Volume:  101     ISSN:  0730-2312     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Cell. Biochem.     Publication Date:  2007 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-07-31     Completed Date:  2008-04-09     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8205768     Medline TA:  J Cell Biochem     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1338-54     Citation Subset:  IM    
Children's Memorial Research Center, Division of Cancer Biology and Epigenomics, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Copper / metabolism
Epithelial Cells / cytology,  physiology
Epithelium / physiology
Extracellular Matrix / enzymology
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Genes, Tumor Suppressor
Neoplasm Invasiveness
Neoplasm Metastasis
Neoplasms / enzymology*,  pathology
Protein-Lysine 6-Oxidase / genetics,  metabolism*
Stromal Cells / cytology,  physiology
Substrate Specificity
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
7440-50-8/Copper; EC 6-Oxidase

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