Document Detail

Pacing Strategy in Schoolchildren Differs With Age and Cognitive Development.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21796049     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
PURPOSE:: To examine differences in pacing strategy between schoolchildren of different age, gender and stage of cognitive development. METHODS:: Schoolchildren (n=106) from four age groups (5-6 yrs, 8-9 yrs, 11-12 yrs and 14 yrs) participated in this study. Each schoolchild completed four conservation tasks to evaluate their Piagetian stage of cognitive development. Each schoolchild then performed a best-effort running task on a 150-m running track that was videoed to analyse pace at 5% increments. The length of the run was varied for each age group to ensure that all schoolchildren were running for approximately 4 minutes (5-6 yrs = 450 m, 8-9 yrs = 600 m, 11-12 yrs = 750 m and 14 yrs = 900 m). RESULTS:: Differences in pacing strategy were found between schoolchildren of different age (P<0.0001), gender (P<0.0001) and cognitive development (P<0.0001). Pacing differences were also found between age groups after controlling for cognitive development (P<0.001), between cognitive abilities after controlling for age (P<0.01), and between genders after controlling for both age (P<0.0001) and cognitive ability (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:: Younger schoolchildren with less advanced cognitive development exhibited a negative pacing strategy indicating an inability to anticipate exercise demand. Older schoolchildren at a more advanced stage of cognitive development exhibited a more conservative U-shaped pacing strategy characterised by faster running speeds during the first 15% and last 20% of the run. Anticipatory pacing strategy appears to be related to both the age and cognitive development of schoolchildren.
Dominic Micklewright; Caroline Angus; Jane Suddaby; Alan St Clair Gibson; Gavin Sandercock; Camilla Chinnasamy
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-7-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Medicine and science in sports and exercise     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1530-0315     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-7-28     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8005433     Medline TA:  Med Sci Sports Exerc     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO3 3DU, UK 2 Psychology and Sport Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST.
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