Document Detail

Pacemaker in complicated and refractory breath-holding spells: When to think about it?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  24630493     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Background: Breath-holding spells (BHS) are benign non-epileptic paroxysmal events of infancy, rarely occurring with high frequency and complicated by prolonged syncope, convulsions and even status epilepticus. In these cases response to medical treatment is often unsatisfactory. Pacemaker implantation is a possible therapeutic option, but its indications, efficacy and complications have not been clarified yet. Objective: To report a new case of BHS treated with pacemaker and to review its indications and efficacy in patients with severe BHS. Methods: We extensively searched the literature in PubMed on cardiac pacing in patients with BHS and we described a new case. Results: A previously healthy boy presented at the age of 4months with frequent BHS inconstantly associated to prolonged syncope and post-anoxic non-epileptic and epileptic seizures. Parental reassurance, iron supplementation and piracetam were ineffective. After cardiac pacing at the age of 16months, BHS and their complications disappeared. We identified 47 patients with BHS treated with pacemaker in the literature. Based on the available data, in all patients asystole or marked bradycardia were documented during BHS or stimulating maneuvers; syncope complicated BHS in 100% of cases and post-anoxic convulsions in 78.3%. Medical treatment before pacing, when administered, was ineffective or poorly tolerated. After pacing, BHS complications disappeared in 86.4% of cases, and decreased in 13.6%. Technical problems with the device were reported in 25.7% of patients and mild medical complications in 11.4%. Conclusions: Pacemaker could be reasonably considered in subjects with frequent and severe BHS, poor response to medications, and demonstration of cardioinhibition during spells.
Stefano Sartori; Margherita Nosadini; Loira Leoni; Luca de Palma; Irene Toldo; Ornella Milanesi; Alessia Cerutti; Agnese Suppiej
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Publication Detail:
Type:  REVIEW     Date:  2014-3-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Brain & development     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1872-7131     ISO Abbreviation:  Brain Dev.     Publication Date:  2014 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-3-17     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7909235     Medline TA:  Brain Dev     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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