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Outcome of severe arteriovenous malformation-related intracranial hemorrhage: the importance of cisternal subarachnoid hemorrhage and early seizures.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21234617     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
BACKGROUND: Although arteriovenous malformations (AVM)-related intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is infrequently devastating, there is a subgroup of patients that present comatose requiring immediate surgical treatment. We sought to determine the outcome and prognostic factors in those patients with severe AVM-ICH. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2009, medical records of 16 consecutive patients presented with severe AVM-ICH were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome was determined using 30-day survival and Glasgow outcome scale and modified Rankin scale scores at last follow-up. RESULTS: There were seven males and nine females with a mean age of 32 years (range 6-66). All had Glasgow coma score 8 or less and most exhibited motor posturing and/or dilated pupils. Fifteen patients had intraprenchymal, ten had intraventricular, and four had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Twelve patients underwent hematoma evacuation with concomitant decompressive craniectomy in 11 and external ventricular drainage (EVD) in six. EVD was the only treatment offered to four patients. AVM excision was not routinely attempted in the acute phase. Three patients died from extensive bihemispheric infarction and refractory intracranial pressure. All 13 survivors improved neurologically and 12 had an acceptable functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≤ 4) after a mean follow-up of 10 months (range 1-49). Among all clinical, radiological, and operative variables, only cisternal SAH (P = 0.007) and early seizures (P = 0.018) were significantly associated with death. CONCLUSION: Despite their poor initial clinical condition, most survivors of severe AVM-ICH achieve an acceptable functional outcome. Therefore, patients with severe AVM-ICH, particularly those without aneurysmal-like SAH, should be managed aggressively given their remarkable potential for neurological recovery.
Ralph Rahme; Alexander G Weil; Michel W Bojanowski
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-1-14
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta neurochirurgica     Volume:  -     ISSN:  0942-0940     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-1-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0151000     Medline TA:  Acta Neurochir (Wien)     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Division of Neurosurgery, Hôpital Notre-Dame du CHUM, University of Montreal, 1560 Sherbrooke E, Montreal, QC, H2L 4M1, Canada.
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