Document Detail

Organochlorine pesticide residues in human milk of a Hmong hill tribe living in Northern Thailand.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11419602     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In December 1998 whole breast milk samples from 25 Hmong mothers living in the village of Mae Sa Mai, 40 km north of Chiang Mai City, Northern Thailand, were collected and analysed for DDT, heptachlor, HCB and HCH residues (fat normalized data). Short questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were used to obtain information on personal characteristics, lifestyle, contact with pesticides, dietary habits and former residences. DDT was detected in all samples with a median and maximum level of 209 and 2012 ng of total DDT isomers per millilitre of milk, respectively. The median and highest percentages of p,p'-DDT were 23.2 and 44.7%. In 15 samples heptachlor was detected in the metabolized form of heptachlor-epoxide with a median value of 4.4 ng/ml. The estimated daily intakes of DDT, heptachlor and heptachlor-epoxide by the infants exceeded up to 20 times the acceptable daily intakes as recommended by the FAO and WHO. In nine samples HCB was detected with a median value of 5.4 ng/ml from which seven of the nine also had the highest values of DDT residues. The gamma-isomer of HCH was only found in one sample with 3.6 ng/ml. The mean sum-DDT residues with 14.96 mg/kg milk fat, as well as the estimated daily intakes by the infants are one of the highest reported in the 1990s. The fact that the mother breast-feeds her first child and that she originally comes from a region where DDT is still in use as a vector control agent, as well as the former use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agriculture, seem to be the main factors for high DDT and other OCP residues in the mothers' milk.
W Stuetz; T Prapamontol; J G Erhardt; H G Classen
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Science of the total environment     Volume:  273     ISSN:  0048-9697     ISO Abbreviation:  Sci. Total Environ.     Publication Date:  2001 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-06-22     Completed Date:  2001-07-12     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0330500     Medline TA:  Sci Total Environ     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  53-60     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Environmental Exposure*
Ethnic Groups
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated*
Insecticides / analysis*
Life Style
Milk, Human / chemistry*
Pesticide Residues / analysis
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated; 0/Insecticides; 0/Pesticide Residues

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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