Document Detail

Oral and manual force control in preschool-aged children: is there evidence for common control?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19073472     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The authors examined and compared the development of oral and manual force control in preschool-aged children. In all, 50 typically developing children (aged 3-5 years) performed maximal strength tasks and submaximal visually guided tasks using tongue elevation, power, and precision grips. Dependent measures included strength, rate of force rise, initial force overshoot, force variability, and rate of force release. The authors performed age- and performance-related analyses. Results revealed similar changes for tongue, fingers, and hands across age- and performance-related measures for strength, initial force overshoot, and rate of force release. There were no significant changes in rate of force rise with increasing age. Force variability measures showed effector-specific changes with decreases across age- and performance-related measures for the hands and fingers but not for the tongue. Changes common across effector systems likely reflect biological development coupled with cognitive-strategic development. Effector-specific changes in force variability likely reflect experience gained through functional tasks influencing biological and cognitive-strategic development. Lack of change in force variability of the tongue suggests that fine control of the tongue is activity specific; thus, nonfunctional tasks are not likely to be sensitive to experience-related biological development.
Nancy L Potter; Raymond D Kent; Jo-Anne C Lazarus
Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of motor behavior     Volume:  41     ISSN:  0022-2895     ISO Abbreviation:  J Mot Behav     Publication Date:  2009 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-12-16     Completed Date:  2009-02-04     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0236512     Medline TA:  J Mot Behav     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  66-81     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Washington State University-Spokane, WA 99210-1495, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Fingers / physiology
Hand / physiology*
Hand Strength
Motor Skills*
Muscle Strength*
Psychomotor Performance*
Tongue / physiology*

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