Document Detail

Optimizing global risk evaluation in primary hypertension: the role of microalbuminuria and cardiovascular ultrasonography.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15097229     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of microalbuminuria and cardiovascular ultrasonography in evaluating the risk profile in primary hypertension. METHODS: Four hundred and five untreated patients with primary hypertension underwent a routine, traditional work-up plus evaluation of albuminuria and ultrasound (US) assessment of cardiac and vascular structures. Albuminuria was measured as the albumin to creatinine ratio in three non-consecutive first-morning urine samples. Left ventricular mass index was assessed by MB-mode echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness by high-resolution US scan. The impact of these tests on patient risk classes, as indicated by European Society of Hypertension-European Society of Cardiology (ESH-ESC) guidelines, was assessed with respect to their cost and sensitivity. RESULTS: The prevalence of microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid intima-media thickening or carotid plaque was 13, 49 and 32%, respectively. The combined use of albuminuria, cardiac and vascular ultrasonography led to the detection of a significantly higher percentage of patients at high/very high risk. The three tests differ in sensitivity (albuminuria, 20%; echocardiography, 65%; and carotid ultrasound, 41%). The signs of target organ damage (TOD) only partly cluster within the same subgroup of patients and, thus, all three tests should be performed in order to maximize the sensitivity of the evaluation process. The diagnostic algorithm yielding the lowest cost per detected case of TOD is the search for microalbuminuria followed by cardiac and carotid ultrasound assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic detection of TOD is a sensitive tool in the identification of high-risk patients, but should be preceded by a routine search for microalbuminuria in order to optimize the cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic work-up.
Francesca Viazzi; Denise Parodi; Giovanna Leoncini; Simone Vettoretti; Elena Ratto; Valentina Vaccaro; Maura Ravera; Cinzia Tomolillo; Gian Paolo Bezante; Massimo Del Sette; Giacomo Deferrari; Roberto Pontremoli
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of hypertension     Volume:  22     ISSN:  0263-6352     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Hypertens.     Publication Date:  2004 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-04-20     Completed Date:  2004-12-14     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8306882     Medline TA:  J Hypertens     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  907-13     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV 6, 16132 Genoa, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Albuminuria / diagnosis,  economics,  epidemiology*
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Hypertension / economics,  epidemiology*
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / economics,  epidemiology*,  ultrasonography*
Kidney Diseases / diagnosis,  economics,  epidemiology
Mass Screening / economics
Middle Aged
Risk Assessment
Sensitivity and Specificity
World Health

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