Document Detail


Optimized aerosol delivery to a mechanically ventilated rodent.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19415985     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: Aerosol delivery through an endotracheal tube during mechanical ventilation of small animals, simulating neonates and small infants, has shown to be influenced by a variety of factors including aerosol generator type, droplet/particle size, ventilator circuitry and ventilation regime. A review of the literature indicates that reported aerosol deposition rates in rodents are quite low, with lung deposition in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats reported to be approximately 3.9 and approximately 8% in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. The optimization of aerosol delivery to both in vitro and in vivo models of anesthetized mechanically ventilated rodents is described in this study. METHODS: Characterization and optimization of the in vitro system performance relied on gravimetric analysis, laser diffraction droplet sizing, and spectrophotometric analysis of drug mass on inspiratory filters. The optimized setup was subsequently employed in vivo to determine deposition of a tracer aerosol in the rat lung. RESULTS: In vitro testing confirmed that droplet size, ventilation regimen, breath actuation setting, and the inclusion of a drug recycling step had the greatest effect on inhaled mass. During testing, improvements of up to 41% were seen in inhaled mass values between runs with the addition of a recycling step. The negative effects of the aerosolization process on albuterol sulphate were minimal. In vitro deposition rates of 29.95 +/- 1.54% of the original dose were recorded (n = 3). In vivo deposition rates of Evans blue were highly comparable (30.88 +/- 5.73%) (n = 6). Intratracheal instillation of the tracer dye resulted in deposition of 87.34 +/- 6.23% of the original dose. CONCLUSIONS: This optimized experimental setup allows for greater inhaled mass than previously reported. The addition of a recycling step may prove to be a significant improvement in achieving higher deposition in mechanically ventilated lungs; however, the suitability of the test agent for repeated nebulization needs assessment.
Authors:
Ronan J MacLoughlin; Brendan D Higgins; John G Laffey; Timothy O'Brien
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery     Volume:  22     ISSN:  1941-2703     ISO Abbreviation:  J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv     Publication Date:  2009 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-12-09     Completed Date:  2010-03-09     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101475057     Medline TA:  J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  323-32     Citation Subset:  T    
Affiliation:
Regenerative Medicine Institute (REMEDI), National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Administration, Inhalation
Aerosols
Albuterol / administration & dosage*,  pharmacokinetics
Animals
Bronchodilator Agents / administration & dosage*,  pharmacokinetics
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods
Drug Delivery Systems*
Evans Blue / administration & dosage
Intubation, Intratracheal
Lung / metabolism
Male
Nebulizers and Vaporizers
Particle Size
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Respiration, Artificial*
Tissue Distribution
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Aerosols; 0/Bronchodilator Agents; 18559-94-9/Albuterol; 314-13-6/Evans Blue

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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