Document Detail

Ophthalmic epinephrine, phenylephrine, and pilocarpine affect the systemic absorption of ocularly applied timolol.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2754297     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Ocularly applied timolol eyedrops may cause serious systemic side-effects in some patients. In this study we evaluated the effects of pretreatment with epinephrine and pilocarpine eyedrops on systemic absorption of ophthalmic timolol. Epinephrine decreased the systemic absorption of timolol, while pilocarpine increased the peak concentrations of timolol in plasma. When applied in the same solution with timolol, pilocarpine had no effect and phenylephrine decreased the systemic absorption of timolol. The observed effects were due to the conjunctival and nasal vasoconstricting effects of epinephrine and phenylephrine and to the vasodilating effects of pilocarpine. These pharmacokinetic interactions demonstrate the importance of the conjunctival and nasal blood flow in the systemic absorption of timolol.
A Urtti; K Kyyrönen
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of ocular pharmacology     Volume:  5     ISSN:  8756-3320     ISO Abbreviation:  J Ocul Pharmacol     Publication Date:  1989  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1989-09-01     Completed Date:  1989-09-01     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8511297     Medline TA:  J Ocul Pharmacol     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  127-32     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Kuopio, Finland.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Availability
Epinephrine / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Ophthalmic Solutions
Phenylephrine / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Pilocarpine / administration & dosage,  pharmacology*
Timolol / blood,  pharmacokinetics*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Ophthalmic Solutions; 26839-75-8/Timolol; 51-43-4/Epinephrine; 59-42-7/Phenylephrine; 92-13-7/Pilocarpine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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