Document Detail

Ontogenetic aspects of hypertension development: analysis in the rat.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10508234     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In this review, we attempt to outline the age-dependent interactions of principal systems controlling the structure and function of the cardiovascular system in immature rats developing hypertension. We focus our attention on the cardiovascular effects of various pharmacological, nutritional, and behavioral interventions applied at different stages of ontogeny. Several distinct critical periods (developmental windows), in which particular stimuli affect the further development of the cardiovascular phenotype, are specified in the rat. It is evident that short-term transient treatment of genetically hypertensive rats with certain antihypertensive drugs in prepuberty and puberty (at the age of 4-10 wk) has long-term beneficial effects on further development of their cardiovascular apparatus. This juvenile critical period coincides with the period of high susceptibility to the hypertensive effects of increased salt intake. If the hypertensive process develops after this critical period (due to early antihypertensive treatment or late administration of certain hypertensive stimuli, e.g., high salt intake), blood pressure elevation, cardiovascular hypertrophy, connective tissue accumulation, and end-organ damage are considerably attenuated compared with rats developing hypertension during the juvenile critical period. As far as the role of various electrolytes in blood pressure modulation is concerned, prohypertensive effects of dietary Na+ and antihypertensive effects of dietary Ca2+ are enhanced in immature animals, whereas vascular protective and antihypertensive effects of dietary K+ are almost independent of age. At a given level of dietary electrolyte intake, the balance between dietary carbohydrate and fat intake can modify blood pressure even in rats with established hypertension, but dietary protein intake affects the blood pressure development in immature animals only. Dietary protein restriction during gestation, as well as altered mother-offspring interactions in the suckling period, might have important long-term hypertensive consequences. The critical periods (developmental windows) should be respected in the future pharmacological or gene therapy of human hypertension.
J Zicha; J Kunes
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Physiological reviews     Volume:  79     ISSN:  0031-9333     ISO Abbreviation:  Physiol. Rev.     Publication Date:  1999 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1999-11-01     Completed Date:  1999-11-01     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0231714     Medline TA:  Physiol Rev     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1227-82     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.
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MeSH Terms
Cardiovascular Abnormalities / genetics,  physiopathology
Cardiovascular System / growth & development
Disease Models, Animal
Hypertension / genetics*,  physiopathology*
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects

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