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Onset, duration and efficacy of four methods of local anesthesia of the horn bud in calves.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22524418     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Objective  To determine the onset, duration and efficacy of four local anesthetic methods for the horn bud in calves. Study design  Crossover study. Animals  Eight, 2 month-old Holstein Friesian bull calves. Methods  Calves were subjected to one of the four following treatments: 1) cornual nerve block (C), 2) ring block (R), 3) cornual nerve block using a percutaneous jet delivery technique (JET) all using 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (0.01 mg mL(-1) ), and 4) topical eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream. A peripheral nerve stimulator was used to assess cutaneous sensation over the horn bud using a graded response. Onset, duration and efficacy of anesthesia were determined. Results  The efficacy of the blocks was as follows: C 87.5%, R 100%, JET 37.5%, EMLA 0%. The median onset time and duration of anesthesia for C and R were: 2 (range 0.5-5) and 304 (range 107-512), and 3.25 (range 1-9) and 147 (range 62-299) minutes, respectively. Three of eight JET injections had a median onset and duration of 8 (range 0.5-9) and 132 (range 101-155) minutes, respectively. The duration of the C block was significantly longer than the R block (p = 0.047). Conclusions and clinical relevance  The relatively rapid onset and long duration of anesthesia with C or R blocks using 2% lidocaine with epinephrine validates their practical use in dehorning calves while jet injection and EMLA cream provided insufficient analgesia to be clinically useful. The efficacy of the C block requires further study.
Authors:
Erin E Fierheller; Nigel A Caulkett; Derek B Haley; Darrel Florence; Lorraine Doepel
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-4-24
Journal Detail:
Title:  Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1467-2995     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-4-24     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100956422     Medline TA:  Vet Anaesth Analg     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.
Affiliation:
Department of Veterinary Clinical and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
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