Document Detail

Onco-Nephrology: The Pathophysiology and Treatment of Malignancy-Associated Hypercalcemia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22879438     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Hypercalcemia complicates the course of 10%-30% of all patients with malignancies and can be a sign of very poor prognosis and advanced malignancy. Prompt recognition of the nonspecific signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia and institution of therapy can be lifesaving, affording the opportunity to address the underlying etiology. The mechanisms of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia generally fall into three categories: humoral hypercalcemia due to secreted factors (such as parathyroid-related hormone), local osteolysis due to tumor invasion of bone, and absorptive hypercalcemia due to excess vitamin D produced by malignancies. The mainstays of therapy for hypercalcemia are aggressive intravenous volume expansion with saline, bisphosphonate therapy, and perhaps loop diuretics. Adjunctive therapy may include calcitonin and corticosteroids. In refractory cases, gallium nitrate and perhaps denosumab are alternatives. In patients presenting with severe AKI, hemodialysis with a low-calcium bath can be effective. In most cases, therapy normalizes calcium levels and allows for palliation or curative therapy of the malignancy.
Mitchell H Rosner; Alan C Dalkin
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-8-9
Journal Detail:
Title:  Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1555-905X     ISO Abbreviation:  Clin J Am Soc Nephrol     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-8-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101271570     Medline TA:  Clin J Am Soc Nephrol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Division of Nephrology and, †Division of Endocrinology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.
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