Document Detail


'Omics Investigations of HIV and SIV Pathogenesis and Innate Immunity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22923094     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
In the 30 years since the advent of the AIDS epidemic, the biomedical community has put forward a battery of molecular therapies that are based on the accumulated knowledge of a limited number of viral targets. Despite these accomplishments, the community still confronts unanswered foundational questions about HIV infection. What are the cellular or biomolecular processes behind HIV pathogenesis? Can we elucidate the characteristics that distinguish those individuals who are naturally resistant to either infection or disease progression? The discovery of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) and the ensuing development of in vivo, nonhuman primate (NHP) infection models was a tremendous advance, especially in abetting the exploration of vaccine strategies. And while there have been numerous NHP infection models and vaccine trials performed, fundamental questions remain regarding host-virus interactions and immune correlates of protection. These issues are, perhaps, most starkly illustrated with the appreciation that many species of African nonhuman primates are naturally infected with strains of SIV that do not cause any appreciable disease while replicating to viral loads that match or exceed those seen with pathogenic SIV infections in Asian species of nonhuman primates. The last decade has seen the establishment of high-throughput molecular profiling tools, such as microarrays for transcriptomics, SNP arrays for genome features, and LC-MS techniques for proteins or metabolites. These provide the capacity to interrogate a biological model at a comprehensive, systems level, in contrast to historical approaches that characterized a few genes or proteins in an experiment. These methods have already had revolutionary impacts in understanding human diseases originating within the host genome such as genetic disorders and cancer, and the methods are finding increasing application in the context of infectious disease. We will provide a review of the use of such 'omics investigations as applied to understanding of HIV pathogenesis and innate immunity, drawing from our own research as well as the literature examples that utilized in vitro cell-based models or studies in nonhuman primates. We will also discuss the potential for systems biology to help guide strategies for HIV vaccines that offer significant protection by either preventing acquisition or strongly suppressing viral replication levels post-infection.
Authors:
Robert E Palermo; Deborah H Fuller
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-8-25
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current topics in microbiology and immunology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  0070-217X     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.     Publication Date:  2012 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-8-27     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0110513     Medline TA:  Curr Top Microbiol Immunol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Affiliation:
Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA, palermor@u.washington.edu.
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