Document Detail


Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: nutrition or pharmacology?
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22765297     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are n-3 fatty acids found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. These fatty acids are able to inhibit partly a number of aspects of inflammation including leucocyte chemotaxis, adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte-endothelial adhesive interactions, production of eicosanoids like prostaglandins and leukotrienes from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, production of inflammatory cytokines and T cell reactivity. In parallel, EPA gives rise to eicosanoids that often have lower biological potency than those produced from arachidonioc acid and EPA and DHA give rise to anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving resolvins and protectins. Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of n-3 fatty acids include altered cell membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, disruption of lipid rafts, inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B so reducing expression of inflammatory genes, activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor NR1C3 (i.e. peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ) and binding to the G protein coupled receptor GPR120. These mechanisms are interlinked. In adult humans, an EPA plus DHA intake greater than 2 g day⁻¹ seems to be required to elicit anti-inflammatory actions, but few dose finding studies have been performed. Animal models demonstrate benefit from n-3 fatty acids in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Clinical trials of fish oil in patients with RA demonstrate benefit supported by meta-analyses of the data. Clinical trails of fish oil in patients with IBD and asthma are inconsistent with no overall clear evidence of efficacy.
Authors:
Philip C Calder
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  British journal of clinical pharmacology     Volume:  75     ISSN:  1365-2125     ISO Abbreviation:  Br J Clin Pharmacol     Publication Date:  2013 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-02-06     Completed Date:  2013-08-06     Revised Date:  2014-03-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7503323     Medline TA:  Br J Clin Pharmacol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  645-62     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Animals
Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
Chemokines / pharmacology*
Clinical Trials as Topic
Dietary Supplements
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / pharmacology*
Fish Oils / pharmacology
Functional Food*
Humans
Inflammation / drug therapy*
Models, Animal
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0/Chemokines; 0/Fatty Acids, Omega-3; 0/Fish Oils
Comments/Corrections

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