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On the Olfactory Anatomy in an Archaic Whale (Protocetidae, Cetacea) and the Minke Whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Balaenopteridae, Cetacea).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23233318     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
The structure of the olfactory apparatus is not well known in both archaic and extant whales; the result of poor preservation in most fossils and locational isolation deep within the skulls in both fossil and Recent taxa. Several specimens now shed additional light on the subject. A partial skull of an archaic cetacean is reported from the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA. The specimen probably derives from the upper middle Eocene (Piney Point Formation) and is tentatively assigned to the Protocetidae. Uncrushed cranial cavities associated with the olfactory apparatus were devoid of sediment. CT scans clearly reveal the dorsal nasal meatus, ethmoturbinates within the olfactory recess, the cribriform plate, the area occupied by the olfactory bulbs, and the olfactory nerve tract. Several sectioned skulls of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were also examined, and olfactory structures are remarkably similar to those observed in the fossil skull from the Pamunkey River. One important difference between the two is that the fossil specimen has an elongate olfactory nerve tract. The more forward position of the external nares in extant balaenopterids when compared with those of extant odontocetes is interpreted to be the result of the need to retain a functional olfactory apparatus and the forward position of the supraoccipital/cranial vertex. An increase in the distance between the occipital condyles and the vertex in balaenopterids enhances the mechanical advantage of the epaxial musculature that inserts on the occiput, a specialization that likely stabilizes the head of these enormous mammals during lunge feeding. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stephen J Godfrey; Jonathan Geisler; Erich M G Fitzgerald
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-12-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1932-8494     ISO Abbreviation:  Anat Rec (Hoboken)     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-12     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101292775     Medline TA:  Anat Rec (Hoboken)     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Department of Paleontology, Calvert Marine Museum, Solomons, Maryland; Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia.
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