Document Detail


Olestra, a nonabsorbed, noncaloric replacement for dietary fat: a review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9262944     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Olestra has been shown to be safe for its intended use by extensive testing in animals and in humans. It is not digested or absorbed and has no effect on the structure or physiology of the GI tract, the only organ of the body that it contacts. Olestra can interfere with the absorption of other lipophilic substances from the GI tract. The interference occurs because a portion of those molecules that are sufficiently lipophilic partition into the nonabsorbed olestra and is carried out of the body. Whether olestra will interfere with the absorption of a specific molecule can be predicted from the octanol-water partition coefficient of the molecule, a parameter that can be measured or calculated from a knowledge of the structure of the molecule. Olestra does not affect the absorption or efficacy of oral drugs because, in general, they are not sufficiently lipophilic to partition into the olestra. Olestra does not affect the absorption of water-soluble micronutrients or the absorption and utilization of macronutrients. Olestra can reduce the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins when olestra foods and the vitamins are coingested. These effects can be offset by adding specific amounts of the vitamins to foods made with olestra. Other than the carotenoids and vitamins A and E, olestra does not affect the absorption of potentially beneficial components of fruits and vegetables. The effects on the vitamins can be offset by adding the vitamins to olestra foods. The reduction in the absorption of carotenoids will be less than 6-10% when olestra snacks are eaten under free-living dietary patterns. Any effect this reduction has on vitamin A status can be offset by addition of vitamin A to the foods. The absorption of flavonoids, polyphenols, and most other phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables, which have been shown to provide beneficial health effects, will not be affected by olestra because they are not sufficiently lipophilic. Individuals consuming large quantities of olestra may experience mild or moderate common GI symptoms such as loose or soft stools, gas, or nausea, symptoms similar to those experienced with certain other foods or changed dietary habits. When olestra snack foods are eaten under free-living dietary patterns, the symptoms are not different from those experienced when eating full-fat snack products, in either incidence or severity. When they are experienced, the symptoms resolve in 1-2 days, but may recur. They do not worsen with continued or increased olestra consumption and pose no health risk to the consumer. Olestra products will carry an information label alerting consumers to the possibility of GI symptoms. Olestra foods provide an additional option to those individuals who want or need to lower their total energy intake and body weight. These individuals will find it easier to change dietary habits and to maintain healthful nutritional practices when they use olestra foods. For those who want or need to reduce fat intake but not lose weight, olestra foods can reduce fat intake without affecting energy. Because olestra foods have taste and other organoleptic properties that are similar to those of full-fat foods, individuals will find it easier to switch to low-fat diets.
Authors:
K D Lawson; S J Middleton; C D Hassall
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Drug metabolism reviews     Volume:  29     ISSN:  0360-2532     ISO Abbreviation:  Drug Metab. Rev.     Publication Date:  1997 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1997-10-09     Completed Date:  1997-10-09     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0322067     Medline TA:  Drug Metab Rev     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  651-703     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Procter & Gamble Company, Winton Hill Technical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45224, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*,  metabolism
Digestive System / drug effects*,  microbiology
Digestive System Physiological Phenomena
Fat Substitutes / chemistry,  metabolism*,  toxicity*
Fatty Acids / chemistry,  metabolism*,  toxicity*
Food-Drug Interactions
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Intestinal Absorption
Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism
Sucrose / analogs & derivatives*,  chemistry,  metabolism,  toxicity
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Fats; 0/Fat Substitutes; 0/Fatty Acids; 0/Pharmaceutical Preparations; 121854-29-3/sucrose polyester; 57-50-1/Sucrose

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