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Occurrence and human exposure of p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and their hydrolysis products in indoor dust from the United States and Three East Asian Countries.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23025715     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are widely present in personal care products, food packages and material coatings. Nevertheless, little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust. In this study, we collected 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S., China, Korea, and Japan and determined the concentrations of 11 target chemicals, viz., six parabens and their common hydrolysis product, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), as well as BADGE and its three hydrolysis products (BADGE▪H2O, BADGE▪2H2O, and BADGE▪HCl▪H2O). All of the target compounds were found in dust samples from four countries. Concentrations of sum of six parabens in dust were on the order of several hundred to several thousands of nanogram per gram. Geometric mean concentrations of BADGEs in dust ranged from 1300 to 2890 ng/g, among four countries. Methyl paraben (MeP), propyl paraben (PrP), BADGE▪2H2O, and BADGE▪HCl▪H2O were the predominant compounds found in dust samples. This is the first report of BADGE and its hydrolysis products (BADGEs) in indoor dust samples and of parabens in indoor dust from Asian countries. On the basis of the measured concentrations of target chemicals, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) via dust ingestion. The EDIs of parabens via dust ingestion were 5-10 times higher in children than in adults. Among the four countries studied, the EDIs of parabens (5.4 ng/kg-bw/day) and BADGEs (6.5 ng/kg-bw/day) through dust ingestion were the highest for children in Korea and Japan.
Authors:
Lei Wang; Chunyang Liao; Fang Liu; Qian Wu; Ying Guo; Hyo-Bang Moon; Haruhiko Nakata; Kurunthachalam Kannan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-5851     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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