Document Detail

Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22135346     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Obstructive sleep apnea in infants has a distinctive pathophysiology, natural history, and treatment compared to older children and adults. Infants have both anatomical and physiological predispositions towards airway obstruction and gas exchange abnormalities; including a superiorly-placed larynx, increased chest wall compliance, ventilation-perfusion mismatching, and ventilatory control instability. Congenital abnormalities of the airway, such as laryngomalacia, hemangiomas, pyriform aperature stenosis, choanal atresia and laryngeal webs may also have adverse effects on airway patency. Additional exacerbating factors predisposing infants towards airway collapse include neck flexion, airway secretions, gastro-esophageal reflux, and sleep deprivation. Obstructive sleep apnea in infants has been associated with failure to thrive, behavioral deficits, and sudden infant death. The proper interpretation of infant polysomnography requires an understanding of normative data related to gestation and post-conceptual age for apnea, arousal, and oxygenation. Direct visualization of the upper airway is an important diagnostic modality in infants with obstructive apnea. Treatment options for infant obstructive sleep apnea are predicated on the underlying etiology, including supraglottoplasty for severe laryngomalacia, mandibular distraction for micrognathia, tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, choanal atresia repair, and/or treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux.
Eliot S Katz; Ron B Mitchell; Carolyn M D'Ambrosio
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-12-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1535-4970     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-2     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9421642     Medline TA:  Am J Respir Crit Care Med     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
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