Document Detail

Objective non-intrusive markers of sperm production and sexual activity.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22522506     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Objective studies of men's reproductive function are hindered by their reliance on: (i) self-reporting to quantify sexual activity and (ii) masturbation to quantify sperm output rendering both types of estimate vulnerable to unverifiable subjective factors. We therefore examined whether detection of spermatozoa and measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in urine could provide objective semiquantitative estimates of sperm output and recent ejaculation, respectively, using widely available laboratory techniques. Of 11 healthy volunteers who provided urine samples before and at intervals for 5 days after ejaculation, sperm was present in 2/11 men before, and in all 11/11 samples immediately after ejaculation, but by the second and subsequent void, spermatozoa were present in ∼10%. PSA was detectable at high levels in all urine samples, peaking at the first post-ejaculatory sample but returning to baseline levels by the second post-ejaculatory void. We conclude that urinary spermatozoa and PSA are objective biomarkers for sperm production and sexual activity, but only for a short-time window until the first post-ejaculatory urine void. Hence, for a single urine specimen, the presence of spermatozoa and PSA are valid biomarkers, reflecting sperm production and recent ejaculation only until the next micturition, so their measurement should be restricted to the first morning urine void.
Thilee Sivananthan; Franz Bathur; Mark Jimenez; Ann Conway; Amanda Idan; David Handelsman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2012-04-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Asian journal of andrology     Volume:  14     ISSN:  1745-7262     ISO Abbreviation:  Asian J. Androl.     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-05-09     Completed Date:  2012-09-20     Revised Date:  2013-09-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  100942132     Medline TA:  Asian J Androl     Country:  China    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  476-80     Citation Subset:  IM    
Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2139, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Markers / urine
Ejaculation / physiology
Prostate-Specific Antigen / urine
Sexual Abstinence / physiology*
Sexual Behavior / physiology*
Sperm Count
Spermatogenesis / physiology*
Spermatozoa / cytology*,  physiology
Time Factors
Urine / cytology*
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Biological Markers; EC Antigen

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