Document Detail


Objective assessment of obesogenic environments in youth: geographic information system methods and spatial findings from the Neighborhood Impact on Kids study.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22516503     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
BACKGROUND: GIS-based walkability measures designed to explain active travel fail to capture "playability" and proximity to healthy food. These constructs should be considered when measuring potential child obesogenic environments.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the development of GIS-based multicomponent physical activity and nutrition environment indicators of child obesogenic environments in the San Diego and Seattle regions.
METHODS: Block group-level walkability (street connectivity, residential density, land-use mix, and retail floor area ratio) measures were constructed in each region. Multiple sources were used to enumerate parks (∼900-1600 per region) and food establishments (∼10,000 per region). Physical activity environments were evaluated on the basis of walkability and presence and quality of parks. Nutrition environments were evaluated based on presence and density of fast-food restaurants and distance to supermarkets. Four neighborhood types were defined using high/low cut points for physical activity and nutrition environments defined through an iterative process dependent on regional counts of fast-food outlets and overall distance to parks and grocery stores from census block groups where youth live.
RESULTS: To identify sufficient numbers of children aged 6-11 years, high physical activity environment block groups had at least one high-quality park within 0.25 miles and were above median walkability, whereas low physical activity environment groups had no parks and were below median walkability. High nutrition environment block groups had a supermarket within 0.5 miles, and fewer than 16 (Seattle) and 31 (San Diego) fast-food restaurants within 0.5 miles. Low nutrition environments had either no supermarket, or a supermarket and more than 16 (Seattle) and 31 (San Diego) fast-food restaurants within 0.5 miles. Income, educational attainment, and ethnicity varied across physical activity and nutrition environments.
CONCLUSIONS: These approaches to defining neighborhood environments can be used to study physical activity, nutrition, and obesity outcomes. Findings presented in a companion paper validate these GIS methods for measuring obesogenic environments.
Authors:
Lawrence D Frank; Brian E Saelens; James Chapman; James F Sallis; Jacqueline Kerr; Karen Glanz; Sarah C Couch; Vincent Learnihan; Chuan Zhou; Trina Colburn; Kelli L Cain
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of preventive medicine     Volume:  42     ISSN:  1873-2607     ISO Abbreviation:  Am J Prev Med     Publication Date:  2012 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-04-20     Completed Date:  2012-08-15     Revised Date:  2013-03-06    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8704773     Medline TA:  Am J Prev Med     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  e47-55     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Schools of Population and Public Health and Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. ldfrank@exchange.ubc.ca
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Child
Environment
Exercise*
Food*
Geographic Information Systems*
Humans
Obesity / epidemiology*
Play and Playthings
Residence Characteristics / statistics & numerical data*
Social Environment*
Socioeconomic Factors
United States / epidemiology
Walking
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
ES014240/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS; KL2 RR025015/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; KL2 TR000421/TR/NCATS NIH HHS; TL1 RR025016/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; TL1 TR000422/TR/NCATS NIH HHS; UL1 RR025014/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; UL1 TR000423/TR/NCATS NIH HHS

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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