Document Detail


Nutritional factors and vertical transmission of HIV-1. Epidemiology and potential mechanisms.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11131740     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Transmission of HIV from mothers to children may occur through the transplacental, intrapartum, or breastfeeding routes. Adequate nutritional status may reduce vertical transmission by affecting several maternal or fetal and child risk factors for transmission including enhancing systemic immune function in the mother or fetus/child; reducing the rate of clinical, immunological, or virological progression in the mother; reducing viral load or the risk of viral shedding in lower genital secretions or breast milk; reducing the risks of low birth weight or prematurity; or by maintaining the integrity of the fetus/child gastrointestinal integrity. In prospective observational studies, low plasma vitamin A levels were associated with higher risks of vertical transmission. However, findings from randomized, controlled trials suggest that supplements of vitamin A or other vitamins are unlikely to have an effect on vertical transmission during pregnancy or the intrapartum period. The effect of other nutrient supplements, such as zinc and selenium, is unknown. Similarly, whether nutrition supplements of mothers during the breastfeeding period has an effect on transmission is unknown. The potential benefits of direct supplementation of children born to HIV-infected women on transmission of HIV, as well as on the risk and severity of childhood infections and mortality, are also important to examine.
Authors:
W Fawzi
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences     Volume:  918     ISSN:  0077-8923     ISO Abbreviation:  Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.     Publication Date:  2000 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-12-21     Completed Date:  2001-01-11     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7506858     Medline TA:  Ann N Y Acad Sci     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  99-114     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. mina@hsph.harvard.edu
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology*,  transmission
Breast Feeding
Female
HIV Infections / epidemiology*,  transmission
HIV-1
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / statistics & numerical data*
Micronutrients
Nutritional Status*
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious*
Virus Shedding
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
D43 TW00004/TW/FIC NIH HHS; R01 32257//PHS HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Micronutrients

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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