Document Detail

Nutritional aspects of phytoene and phytofluene, carotenoid precursors to lycopene.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22211189     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Epidemiological studies suggest an inverse relationship between tomato consumption and serum and tissue lycopene (LYC) levels with risk of some chronic diseases, including several cancers and cardiovascular disease. LYC, the red carotenoid found in tomatoes, is often considered to be the primary bioactive carotenoid in tomatoes that mediates health benefits, but other colorless precursor carotenoids, phytoene (PE) and phytofluene (PF), are also present in substantial quantities. PE and PF are readily absorbed from tomato foods and tomato extracts by humans. Animal models of carotenoid absorption suggest preferential accumulation of PE and PF in some tissues. The reasonably high concentrations of PE and PF detected in serum and tissues relative to the concentrations in foods suggest that absorption or metabolism of these compounds may be different from that of LYC. Experimental studies, both in vitro and in vivo, suggest that PE and PF exhibit bioactivity but little is known about their impact in humans. Methods for producing isotopically labeled PE, PF, and LYC tracers from tomato plant cell culture offer a unique tool for further understanding the differential bioavailability and metabolism of these 3 prominent tomato carotenoids and how they may affect health.
Nancy J Engelmann; Steven K Clinton; John W Erdman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-01-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)     Volume:  2     ISSN:  2156-5376     ISO Abbreviation:  Adv Nutr     Publication Date:  2011 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-01-02     Completed Date:  2012-05-24     Revised Date:  2013-06-26    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101540874     Medline TA:  Adv Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  51-61     Citation Subset:  IM    
Division of Nutritional Sciences University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Biological Availability
Carotenoids / biosynthesis*,  metabolism,  pharmacokinetics
Fruit / chemistry,  metabolism
Isotope Labeling
Lycopersicon esculentum*
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
Grant Support
1R21AT005166-01A1/AT/NCCAM NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
36-88-4/Carotenoids; 540-04-5/phytoene; 6NUO4W7YQ6/phytofluene; SB0N2N0WV6/lycopene
Erratum In:
Adv Nutr. 2012 Mar;3(2):255

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