Document Detail

Nutrition, growth, and complementary feeding of the breastfed infant.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11236735     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Although additional research is needed on many of the issues discussed herein, the following conclusions are well substantiated by the evidence available to date: Breast milk alone can meet nutrient needs during the first 6 months, with the possible exception of vitamin D in certain populations and iron in infants of relatively low birth weight. Complementary foods offered before 6 months of age tend to displace breast milk and do not confer any growth advantage over exclusive breastfeeding. Breast milk continues to provide substantial amounts of key nutrients well beyond the first year of life, especially protein, fat, and most vitamins. Breastfed infants tend to gain less weight and usually are leaner than are formula-fed infants in the second half of infancy. This difference does not seem to be the result of nutritional deficits but rather infant self-regulation of energy intake. New growth charts based on infants breastfed throughout the first year of life are being developed by WHO. The nutrients most likely to be limiting in the diets of breastfed infants are minerals, such as iron, zinc, and calcium. Using the following guidelines can help to ensure that the nutrient needs of the breastfed child are met: Continue to breastfeed as often as the infant desires. Aim for a variety of complementary foods, with fruits, vegetables, and animal products (e.g., meat, fish, poultry, or egg) offered daily. Iron-fortified cereals and meats can provide adequate iron. Calcium can be obtained from cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products (although fresh cow's milk is not recommended before 12 mo). Avoid giving too much juice. Be alert to any signs that the child's appetite, growth, or development is impaired. When in doubt, a balanced vitamin-mineral supplement is advisable. Make mealtimes enjoyable.
K G Dewey
Related Documents :
22669085 - Insufficient androgen and fsh signaling may be responsible for the azoospermia of the i...
19517945 - Infant feeding in the first year. 2: feeding practices from 6-12 months of life.
17304425 - The efficacy and safety of early supplementation of iron polymaltose complex in preterm...
23826805 - Urine s100 bb and a1b dimers are valuable predictors of adverse outcome in full-term as...
7081325 - Phencyclidine: its transfer across the placenta as well as into breast milk.
20607405 - Pharmacodynamics and safety of pantoprazole in neonates, preterm infants, and infants a...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatric clinics of North America     Volume:  48     ISSN:  0031-3955     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatr. Clin. North Am.     Publication Date:  2001 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-03-09     Completed Date:  2001-03-29     Revised Date:  2008-11-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0401126     Medline TA:  Pediatr Clin North Am     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  87-104     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Biological Availability
Body Height
Body Weight
Breast Feeding*
Child Development
Dietary Proteins
Infant Food*
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
Milk, Human / chemistry
Nutritional Requirements
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Dietary Proteins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Previous Document:  Bioactive factors in human milk.
Next Document:  Transfer of T-DNA from agrobacteria into plant cells through cell walls and membranes