Document Detail

Nuclear and chromatin reorganization during cell senescence and aging - a mini-review.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20134149     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Genetic material in the nucleus governs mechanisms related to cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. Thus, senescence and aging are directly tied to the change of nuclear function and structure. The most important mechanisms that affect cell senescence are: (i) telomere shortening; (ii) environmental stress-mediated accumulation of DNA mutations, and (iii) the intrinsically encoded biological clock that dictates lifespan events of any particular cell type. Overall, these changes lead to modification of the expression of genes that are responsible for: (i) organization of the nuclear structure; (ii) integrity of transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin, and (iii) epigenetic modification of chromosomes due to DNA methylation and/or histone modifications. These aging-related nuclear alterations do not only affect somatic cells. More importantly, they affect stem cells, which are responsible for proper tissue rejuvenation. In this review, we focus on epigenetic changes in the chromatin structure and their impact on the biology and function of adult cells as they age. We will also address aging-related changes in a compartment of the most primitive pluripotent stem cells that were recently identified by our team and named 'very small embryonic/epiblast-like stem cells'.
Dong-Myung Shin; Magda Kucia; Mariusz Z Ratajczak
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2010-02-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Gerontology     Volume:  57     ISSN:  1423-0003     ISO Abbreviation:  Gerontology     Publication Date:  2011  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-12-23     Completed Date:  2011-04-27     Revised Date:  2013-05-31    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7601655     Medline TA:  Gerontology     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  76-84     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Stem Cell Institute at James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Ky., USA.
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MeSH Terms
Adult Stem Cells / cytology,  metabolism
Aging / genetics*,  pathology
Cell Aging / genetics*
Cell Nucleus / genetics*
Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly / genetics*
DNA Damage
Embryonic Stem Cells / cytology,  metabolism
Epigenesis, Genetic
Genomic Imprinting
Insulin / physiology
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / physiology
Models, Genetic
Pluripotent Stem Cells / cytology,  metabolism
Signal Transduction
Telomere / genetics
Grant Support
P20RR018733/RR/NCRR NIH HHS; R01 CA106281-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS; R01 DK074720/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Insulin; 67763-96-6/Insulin-Like Growth Factor I

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