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Novel qualitative aspects of tissue fatty acids related to metabolic regulation: Lessons from Elovl6 knockout.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22266797     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Insulin resistance, often associated with obesity, precipitates metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and finally, atherosclerosis. Sources of excess energy cause abnormal accumulation of tissue lipids leading to cellular dysfunction through cellular stress and inflammation. This process is often referred to as lipotoxicity. Until date, effective approaches that aim to overcome insulin resistance involve amelioration of obesity by caloric restriction and/or exercise. Quantitative control of lipids, especially triglycerides and fatty acids in adipose and other tissues, and plasma can be addressed using these measures. However, altering tissue lipid composition may provide another strategy to prevent or control lipotoxicity. Endogenous fatty acid synthesis plays a crucial role in determining tissue energy states. As a target gene of SREBP-1 that controls lipogenesis we identified a unique enzyme, Elovl6, which is responsible for the final step in endogenous saturated fatty acid synthesis, thereby controlling tissue fatty acid composition. Elovl6-deficient mice become obese and develop hepatosteatosis when fed a high-fat diet or when mated to leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. However, the mice exhibited marked protection from hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperleptinemia. Hepatic fatty acid composition is a novel determinant of insulin sensitivity independent of cellular energy balance. Inhibiting Elovl6 activity may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating insulin resistance, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risks by circumventing obesity problems. In this review, we consider fatty acid metabolism and lipotoxicity, and discuss the role of Elovl6 in newly recognized aspects of metabolic regulation.
Authors:
Hitoshi Shimano
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-1-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Progress in lipid research     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1873-2194     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2012 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-1-23     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7900832     Medline TA:  Prog Lipid Res     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Affiliation:
Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology and Metabolism), Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575, Japan.
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